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This paper redresses this balance by focusing on sex as one of the drivers of the global economy, arguing that world cities are not merely major markets for sexual consumption, pornography, and prostitution but are the hubs of a global network of sexual commerce around which images, bodies and desires circulate voraciously. As such, this paper brings the body into discussions of globalization not merely as a vector of disease transmission, an agent of cultural diffusion or a repository of tacit business knowledge, but as a sexualised and desiring body whose intimate geographies are integral to the reproduction of global economic systems which thrive on the commodification of desire.

One manifestation has been the attempts to empirically quantify which cities exercise the highest degrees of centrality and power within the world city network Taylor, While world city rosters and league tables can reveal the most powerful world cities — rather than those which merely boast a large population — we need to be mindful of the basis on which these are constructed given that most prioritize particular types of work, and ignore the embodied dimensions of urban life.

Yet even those accounts seeking to reintegrate elite migration in the study of world cities e. Malecki and Ewers have rarely considered sex, love and intimacy as factors impinging on decisions to migrate, and hence as integral to the making of world city networks. International political economy has rarely considered sex as integral to the dynamics of contemporary globalization except in accounts that focus on sex trafficking and related practices in which women — and children — are exploited for gain.

Such accounts often suggest that these forms of sexual exploitation reproduce geopolitical orders and the dominance of white, male, bourgeois values. All are part of a world city network bound by flows of intimacy and sex as well as money and power. Having massively expanded since the discovery of oil in the s, Dubai has become one of the most important cities on the Arab peninsula, its emergence as a world city associated with its growing role as a centre for financial services as well as its reputation as a luxury tourist resort.

Focusing on the latter, Walsh reports a tendency for young British expats to reject notions of coupledom and instead perform a transient heterosexuality focused on play, freedom and the pursuit of sexual pleasure.

Put simply, his thesis is that cities require a critical mass of creatives to thrive, a class of workers whose job is to create meaningful new forms of work Florida According to Florida, for a city to become a magnet for the creative class, it must provide Talent have a highly talented, educated and skilled population , Technology have the technological infrastructure necessary to fuel an entrepreneurial culture and Tolerance having a diverse community, which has a 'live and let live' ethos.

One way that Florida operationalises the latter is by a diversity index based on the proportion of coupled gay households in a region , which he sees as a good predictor of creativity and urban productivity, noting that eleven of the top 15 high tech metropolitan areas in the US also appear in the top 15 of his gay index Florida Moreover, a rising number of city governors acknowledge the importance of adult entertainment in attracting business tourists and conference travellers of all kinds Sanchez Unsurprisingly, few surveys suggest sex is a motivation for business travel, but anecdotal evidence for this is legion, suggesting an important connection between business travel and sexual consumption, especially when such travel allows individuals to escape the confines of an existing, coupled relationship Wonders and Michalowski While this can apply to women travellers, much commentary fixates on the business man , who is assumed to be a significant and sometimes voracious consumer of sexual services.

In Tokyo, visits to massage parlours and hostess bars appear to be as much a part of corporate hospitality as banqueting and karaoke are Allison , whilst in London female employees have complained about the culture of entertaining foreign visitors by taking them to lap dancing and strip shows Rutherford Beyond this, it is clear that hotels catering to business travelers are important sites for escort work and prostitution, while sexual consumption is normalized in the provision of hard-core porn on the pay-to-view channels that constitute part of the in-room entertainment.

Oppermann argues that the vast majority of tourists who visit prostitutes or sites of adult entertainment do not travel for that purpose alone. In most cases, this is a by-product or side attraction rather than the main and sole purpose of travel.

O'Connell Davidson describes these as situational sex tourists. Dispensing with clichés of the sex tourist as a predator, travelling solely to exploit and dominate economically subordinate young people, this notion of situational sex tourism suggests that sex and business entwine in a multitude of ways see Hesse and Tutengen, But to suggest the sex industries simply follow existing flows of finance and business is to downplay the importance of the sex industry as one of the drivers of the global economy.

Historically, the sex industry has been associated with centres of trade and finance, with sex workers catering to the wealthy, but sex tourism and adult entertainment has also developed in tourist areas, areas of seasonal employment, in border zones and in centres of conflict such as occupied zones: As such, there are many cities whose importance as centres of sexual commerce is disproportionate to their significance as centres of finance.

This implies that whilst all world cities are seductive, some cities are more seductive than others, becoming de facto erotic cities. Positioned within East-West flows of tourism, a context of rural deprivation, gendered inequality and a predominant Buddhist attitude which is tolerant of many forms of sex working, Thailand has been a notorious centre for sex tourism since at least the s, when US military en route to Vietnam stopped there for rest and recreation Askew Gambling remains the cornerstone of the economy, but even conservative estimates suggest there are more employed in the sex industry than in the casinos.

Penttinen has accordingly used the concept of shadow globalization when referring to the global flows of migrants who are employed in the sex industry. Indonesia, Surinam and Antilles. In a contemporary context, there is much concern that a large proportion — and maybe even a majority — of these men and women will have been trafficked for the express purpose of sexual exploitation.

Indeed, it is estimated somewhere between , and 1,, people are trafficked globally annually, with a significant — but ultimately immeasurable — number ending up sex working see Hubbard et al. Particularly problematic is the distinction between migration via smuggling networks and enforced migration at the hands of traffickers — a distinction many human rights organizations claim is irrelevant given those seeking to migrate with the aid of people smugglers do so in desperate circumstances and with little knowledge about employment opportunities Hughes However, others reject this to posit a more complex range of scenarios situated at different points on a continuum of voluntary and involuntary migration.

For example, Agustin argues that the poor pay and conditions in caring and servicing work means that many migrants prefer to sell sex or sell it as a second job, despite the stigma attached to it. The sex industry thus provides a paid occupation for many millions of people worldwide, offering much higher wages and often more freedom and flexibility than other jobs available: Mai found that migrant sex workers in London reported better working and living conditions than those they encountered in other sectors mainly in the hospitality and care sectors.

Tellingly, only a handful around 6 per cent of female interviewees in his sample felt that they had been deceived and forced into selling sex in circumstances in which they had no share of control or consent. Even in nations where governments have sought to block adult content and prevent peer-to-peer file sharing, it remains relatively easy to access sites where sexual imagery can be freely viewed and posted , whilst there are thousands — perhaps hundreds of thousands — of sites where video content is available to download on a subscription of a pay-to-view basis.

The rise of the Internet and the putative pornification of society are hence intimately connected, with pornography producers being early innovators in the use of online and visual technologies to disseminate adult content. The public space of the Internet is characterised by relative anonymity, affordability, and accessibility, allowing those in peripheral and poorer regions — especially those outside major metropolitan cores - to become active consumers of adult content Jacobs This implies that pornography has undergone a shift towards decentralization and heterogeneity as a wider variety of producers and consumers participate in globalized sex markets.

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Dispensing with clichés of the sex tourist as a predator, travelling solely to exploit and dominate economically subordinate young people, this notion of situational sex tourism suggests that sex and business entwine in a multitude of ways see Hesse and Tutengen, But to suggest the sex industries simply follow existing flows of finance and business is to downplay the importance of the sex industry as one of the drivers of the global economy.

Historically, the sex industry has been associated with centres of trade and finance, with sex workers catering to the wealthy, but sex tourism and adult entertainment has also developed in tourist areas, areas of seasonal employment, in border zones and in centres of conflict such as occupied zones: As such, there are many cities whose importance as centres of sexual commerce is disproportionate to their significance as centres of finance.

This implies that whilst all world cities are seductive, some cities are more seductive than others, becoming de facto erotic cities. Positioned within East-West flows of tourism, a context of rural deprivation, gendered inequality and a predominant Buddhist attitude which is tolerant of many forms of sex working, Thailand has been a notorious centre for sex tourism since at least the s, when US military en route to Vietnam stopped there for rest and recreation Askew Gambling remains the cornerstone of the economy, but even conservative estimates suggest there are more employed in the sex industry than in the casinos.

Penttinen has accordingly used the concept of shadow globalization when referring to the global flows of migrants who are employed in the sex industry. Indonesia, Surinam and Antilles. In a contemporary context, there is much concern that a large proportion — and maybe even a majority — of these men and women will have been trafficked for the express purpose of sexual exploitation.

Indeed, it is estimated somewhere between , and 1,, people are trafficked globally annually, with a significant — but ultimately immeasurable — number ending up sex working see Hubbard et al. Particularly problematic is the distinction between migration via smuggling networks and enforced migration at the hands of traffickers — a distinction many human rights organizations claim is irrelevant given those seeking to migrate with the aid of people smugglers do so in desperate circumstances and with little knowledge about employment opportunities Hughes However, others reject this to posit a more complex range of scenarios situated at different points on a continuum of voluntary and involuntary migration.

For example, Agustin argues that the poor pay and conditions in caring and servicing work means that many migrants prefer to sell sex or sell it as a second job, despite the stigma attached to it. The sex industry thus provides a paid occupation for many millions of people worldwide, offering much higher wages and often more freedom and flexibility than other jobs available: Mai found that migrant sex workers in London reported better working and living conditions than those they encountered in other sectors mainly in the hospitality and care sectors.

Tellingly, only a handful around 6 per cent of female interviewees in his sample felt that they had been deceived and forced into selling sex in circumstances in which they had no share of control or consent. Even in nations where governments have sought to block adult content and prevent peer-to-peer file sharing, it remains relatively easy to access sites where sexual imagery can be freely viewed and posted , whilst there are thousands — perhaps hundreds of thousands — of sites where video content is available to download on a subscription of a pay-to-view basis.

The rise of the Internet and the putative pornification of society are hence intimately connected, with pornography producers being early innovators in the use of online and visual technologies to disseminate adult content. The public space of the Internet is characterised by relative anonymity, affordability, and accessibility, allowing those in peripheral and poorer regions — especially those outside major metropolitan cores - to become active consumers of adult content Jacobs This implies that pornography has undergone a shift towards decentralization and heterogeneity as a wider variety of producers and consumers participate in globalized sex markets.

Indeed, any notion of geographic disembedment is illusionary, as the Internet adult industry operates in a space of flows that offers new possibilities for pornographic distribution but remains anchored in a space of places. In this sense, it is possible that some of the arguments deployed in economic geography about the embedded nature of production and the importance of tacit knowledge are relevant to pornography production.

To some extent this explains why the adult industries have tended to be innovators in the use of online and IT technologies: Inter-firm knowledge flows have been vital here, with adult entertainment trade fairs e. A key role of such fairs is to encourage global copycatting: The first of these relates to the content that adult websites buy to host on their websites the most common practice for pay-to-view providers. Though the creation of content is now relatively easy in the sense that it merely requires relatively cheap camcorder and willing participants , the acknowledged centre of porn has, since the s, been San Fernando or Silicone Valley, as it is sometimes dubbed , which currently accounts for around two-thirds of listed adult entertainment production studios being home to around companies.

This remarkable agglomeration economy developed by virtue of the fact that San Fernando offered abundant low-rent industrial spaces and warehouses where Hollywood wannabee actors and directors utilized ex-studio equipment and expertise to create the first wave of adult videos as distinct from films - see Simpson Emphasizing the continued dominance of the US in studio-produced pornography Danta notes that an additional 12 percent of adult film studios worldwide are located in other parts of Los Angeles; 15 percent are found in other cities notably New York, Miami and Las Vegas ; and only 2 percent of studios are located in other countries mainly Russia, Czech Republic, and Hungary.

Such sites are also massively important for Internet providers given on-line high res content uses up vast amounts of bandwidth, at great cost to the website providers. Mapping domain names of membership websites, Zook One particularly interesting finding here is that a number of adult content sites are registered in locations such as Antigua, Saint Kitts, the Turks and Caicos Islands that are otherwise unimportant in domain hosting terms.

This points to an off-shoring tendency that might bear some comparison to trends in banking for high net worth individuals and perhaps reflects a desire to escape intrusive governmental surveillance. In theory, this is the easiest location to map as it can be traced via identification of the IP address of the computer on which the website is hosted.

The evident inertia in the geography of pornography is surprising given the rapid technological changes in the sector as well as the low start up costs associated with pornographic production and uploading.

What is of course missing here is reliable data on the real flows of Internet traffic that constitute this form of underground globalization: In this paper, I have offered a broad overview of some of the ways in which world cities research might further engage with themes of sex and sexuality, suggesting that both licit and illicit commercial sex markets have been stimulated by the enhanced flow of people, goods and images between cities across the world.

Cities are, perhaps more than ever, contact zones where people of different social and cultural backgrounds mix. The visibility of commercial sex at the heart of those world cities most central to global flows of business and finance i. Chicago, University of Chicago. US legal brothels and late capitalist consumption. New market for urban tourism or destruction of 'gay space'? If you don't agree with our terms, please leave this site. Nous vous recommandons Google Chrome pour une navigation plus rapide.

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Cet article modifie cet équilibre en mettant l'accent sur le sexe comme l'un des moteurs de l'économie mondiale, en faisant valoir que les métropoles mondiales ne sont pas seulement de grands marchés de consommation sexuelle, de pornographie et de prostitution, mais sont les plaques tournantes d'un réseau mondial de commerce sexuel dans lequel les images, les corps et les désirs circulent avec frénésie.

Cet article introduit le corps dans les discussions sur la globalisation non pas simplement comme un vecteur de transmission de la maladie, un agent de diffusion culturelle ou un référentiel de connaissance des affaires tacites, mais comme un corps sexué et désirant dont les géographies intimes font partie intégrante de la reproduction des systèmes économiques globaux qui prospèrent sur la marchandisation du désir. Conventionally, the literature on world cities describes them as the global hubs that organise ever-more complex flows of information, money and people.

Within this literature, it is advanced producer services that are considered to be of crucial importance in articulating this space of flows, often to the neglect of other cultural and social practices that give world cities their distinctive character. This paper redresses this balance by focusing on sex as one of the drivers of the global economy, arguing that world cities are not merely major markets for sexual consumption, pornography, and prostitution but are the hubs of a global network of sexual commerce around which images, bodies and desires circulate voraciously.

As such, this paper brings the body into discussions of globalization not merely as a vector of disease transmission, an agent of cultural diffusion or a repository of tacit business knowledge, but as a sexualised and desiring body whose intimate geographies are integral to the reproduction of global economic systems which thrive on the commodification of desire. One manifestation has been the attempts to empirically quantify which cities exercise the highest degrees of centrality and power within the world city network Taylor, While world city rosters and league tables can reveal the most powerful world cities — rather than those which merely boast a large population — we need to be mindful of the basis on which these are constructed given that most prioritize particular types of work, and ignore the embodied dimensions of urban life.

Yet even those accounts seeking to reintegrate elite migration in the study of world cities e. Malecki and Ewers have rarely considered sex, love and intimacy as factors impinging on decisions to migrate, and hence as integral to the making of world city networks.

International political economy has rarely considered sex as integral to the dynamics of contemporary globalization except in accounts that focus on sex trafficking and related practices in which women — and children — are exploited for gain. Such accounts often suggest that these forms of sexual exploitation reproduce geopolitical orders and the dominance of white, male, bourgeois values.

All are part of a world city network bound by flows of intimacy and sex as well as money and power. Having massively expanded since the discovery of oil in the s, Dubai has become one of the most important cities on the Arab peninsula, its emergence as a world city associated with its growing role as a centre for financial services as well as its reputation as a luxury tourist resort.

Focusing on the latter, Walsh reports a tendency for young British expats to reject notions of coupledom and instead perform a transient heterosexuality focused on play, freedom and the pursuit of sexual pleasure. Put simply, his thesis is that cities require a critical mass of creatives to thrive, a class of workers whose job is to create meaningful new forms of work Florida According to Florida, for a city to become a magnet for the creative class, it must provide Talent have a highly talented, educated and skilled population , Technology have the technological infrastructure necessary to fuel an entrepreneurial culture and Tolerance having a diverse community, which has a 'live and let live' ethos.

One way that Florida operationalises the latter is by a diversity index based on the proportion of coupled gay households in a region , which he sees as a good predictor of creativity and urban productivity, noting that eleven of the top 15 high tech metropolitan areas in the US also appear in the top 15 of his gay index Florida Moreover, a rising number of city governors acknowledge the importance of adult entertainment in attracting business tourists and conference travellers of all kinds Sanchez Unsurprisingly, few surveys suggest sex is a motivation for business travel, but anecdotal evidence for this is legion, suggesting an important connection between business travel and sexual consumption, especially when such travel allows individuals to escape the confines of an existing, coupled relationship Wonders and Michalowski While this can apply to women travellers, much commentary fixates on the business man , who is assumed to be a significant and sometimes voracious consumer of sexual services.

In Tokyo, visits to massage parlours and hostess bars appear to be as much a part of corporate hospitality as banqueting and karaoke are Allison , whilst in London female employees have complained about the culture of entertaining foreign visitors by taking them to lap dancing and strip shows Rutherford Beyond this, it is clear that hotels catering to business travelers are important sites for escort work and prostitution, while sexual consumption is normalized in the provision of hard-core porn on the pay-to-view channels that constitute part of the in-room entertainment.

Oppermann argues that the vast majority of tourists who visit prostitutes or sites of adult entertainment do not travel for that purpose alone. In most cases, this is a by-product or side attraction rather than the main and sole purpose of travel. O'Connell Davidson describes these as situational sex tourists.

Dispensing with clichés of the sex tourist as a predator, travelling solely to exploit and dominate economically subordinate young people, this notion of situational sex tourism suggests that sex and business entwine in a multitude of ways see Hesse and Tutengen, But to suggest the sex industries simply follow existing flows of finance and business is to downplay the importance of the sex industry as one of the drivers of the global economy.

Historically, the sex industry has been associated with centres of trade and finance, with sex workers catering to the wealthy, but sex tourism and adult entertainment has also developed in tourist areas, areas of seasonal employment, in border zones and in centres of conflict such as occupied zones: As such, there are many cities whose importance as centres of sexual commerce is disproportionate to their significance as centres of finance.

This implies that whilst all world cities are seductive, some cities are more seductive than others, becoming de facto erotic cities. Positioned within East-West flows of tourism, a context of rural deprivation, gendered inequality and a predominant Buddhist attitude which is tolerant of many forms of sex working, Thailand has been a notorious centre for sex tourism since at least the s, when US military en route to Vietnam stopped there for rest and recreation Askew Gambling remains the cornerstone of the economy, but even conservative estimates suggest there are more employed in the sex industry than in the casinos.

Penttinen has accordingly used the concept of shadow globalization when referring to the global flows of migrants who are employed in the sex industry. Indonesia, Surinam and Antilles. In a contemporary context, there is much concern that a large proportion — and maybe even a majority — of these men and women will have been trafficked for the express purpose of sexual exploitation. Indeed, it is estimated somewhere between , and 1,, people are trafficked globally annually, with a significant — but ultimately immeasurable — number ending up sex working see Hubbard et al.

Particularly problematic is the distinction between migration via smuggling networks and enforced migration at the hands of traffickers — a distinction many human rights organizations claim is irrelevant given those seeking to migrate with the aid of people smugglers do so in desperate circumstances and with little knowledge about employment opportunities Hughes However, others reject this to posit a more complex range of scenarios situated at different points on a continuum of voluntary and involuntary migration.

For example, Agustin argues that the poor pay and conditions in caring and servicing work means that many migrants prefer to sell sex or sell it as a second job, despite the stigma attached to it.

The sex industry thus provides a paid occupation for many millions of people worldwide, offering much higher wages and often more freedom and flexibility than other jobs available: Mai found that migrant sex workers in London reported better working and living conditions than those they encountered in other sectors mainly in the hospitality and care sectors. Tellingly, only a handful around 6 per cent of female interviewees in his sample felt that they had been deceived and forced into selling sex in circumstances in which they had no share of control or consent.

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  • Unsurprisingly, few surveys suggest sex is a motivation for business travel, but anecdotal evidence for this is legion, suggesting an important connection between business travel and sexual consumption, especially when such travel allows individuals to escape the confines of an existing, coupled relationship Wonders and Michalowski Free hq porn
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  • Pornoeconomies and world cities 17 Irrespective of moral arguments about the uses and consequences of pornography, it s availability has changed in profound ways thanks to the growth of the worldwide web.

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Focusing on the latter, Walsh reports a tendency for young British expats to reject notions of coupledom and instead perform a transient heterosexuality focused on play, freedom and the pursuit of sexual pleasure. Put simply, his thesis is that cities require a critical mass of creatives to thrive, a class of workers whose job is to create meaningful new forms of work Florida According to Florida, for a city to become a magnet for the creative class, it must provide Talent have a highly talented, educated and skilled population , Technology have the technological infrastructure necessary to fuel an entrepreneurial culture and Tolerance having a diverse community, which has a 'live and let live' ethos.

One way that Florida operationalises the latter is by a diversity index based on the proportion of coupled gay households in a region , which he sees as a good predictor of creativity and urban productivity, noting that eleven of the top 15 high tech metropolitan areas in the US also appear in the top 15 of his gay index Florida Moreover, a rising number of city governors acknowledge the importance of adult entertainment in attracting business tourists and conference travellers of all kinds Sanchez Unsurprisingly, few surveys suggest sex is a motivation for business travel, but anecdotal evidence for this is legion, suggesting an important connection between business travel and sexual consumption, especially when such travel allows individuals to escape the confines of an existing, coupled relationship Wonders and Michalowski While this can apply to women travellers, much commentary fixates on the business man , who is assumed to be a significant and sometimes voracious consumer of sexual services.

In Tokyo, visits to massage parlours and hostess bars appear to be as much a part of corporate hospitality as banqueting and karaoke are Allison , whilst in London female employees have complained about the culture of entertaining foreign visitors by taking them to lap dancing and strip shows Rutherford Beyond this, it is clear that hotels catering to business travelers are important sites for escort work and prostitution, while sexual consumption is normalized in the provision of hard-core porn on the pay-to-view channels that constitute part of the in-room entertainment.

Oppermann argues that the vast majority of tourists who visit prostitutes or sites of adult entertainment do not travel for that purpose alone. In most cases, this is a by-product or side attraction rather than the main and sole purpose of travel. O'Connell Davidson describes these as situational sex tourists.

Dispensing with clichés of the sex tourist as a predator, travelling solely to exploit and dominate economically subordinate young people, this notion of situational sex tourism suggests that sex and business entwine in a multitude of ways see Hesse and Tutengen, But to suggest the sex industries simply follow existing flows of finance and business is to downplay the importance of the sex industry as one of the drivers of the global economy.

Historically, the sex industry has been associated with centres of trade and finance, with sex workers catering to the wealthy, but sex tourism and adult entertainment has also developed in tourist areas, areas of seasonal employment, in border zones and in centres of conflict such as occupied zones: As such, there are many cities whose importance as centres of sexual commerce is disproportionate to their significance as centres of finance.

This implies that whilst all world cities are seductive, some cities are more seductive than others, becoming de facto erotic cities. Positioned within East-West flows of tourism, a context of rural deprivation, gendered inequality and a predominant Buddhist attitude which is tolerant of many forms of sex working, Thailand has been a notorious centre for sex tourism since at least the s, when US military en route to Vietnam stopped there for rest and recreation Askew Gambling remains the cornerstone of the economy, but even conservative estimates suggest there are more employed in the sex industry than in the casinos.

Penttinen has accordingly used the concept of shadow globalization when referring to the global flows of migrants who are employed in the sex industry. Indonesia, Surinam and Antilles. In a contemporary context, there is much concern that a large proportion — and maybe even a majority — of these men and women will have been trafficked for the express purpose of sexual exploitation.

Indeed, it is estimated somewhere between , and 1,, people are trafficked globally annually, with a significant — but ultimately immeasurable — number ending up sex working see Hubbard et al. Particularly problematic is the distinction between migration via smuggling networks and enforced migration at the hands of traffickers — a distinction many human rights organizations claim is irrelevant given those seeking to migrate with the aid of people smugglers do so in desperate circumstances and with little knowledge about employment opportunities Hughes However, others reject this to posit a more complex range of scenarios situated at different points on a continuum of voluntary and involuntary migration.

For example, Agustin argues that the poor pay and conditions in caring and servicing work means that many migrants prefer to sell sex or sell it as a second job, despite the stigma attached to it. The sex industry thus provides a paid occupation for many millions of people worldwide, offering much higher wages and often more freedom and flexibility than other jobs available: Mai found that migrant sex workers in London reported better working and living conditions than those they encountered in other sectors mainly in the hospitality and care sectors.

Tellingly, only a handful around 6 per cent of female interviewees in his sample felt that they had been deceived and forced into selling sex in circumstances in which they had no share of control or consent. Even in nations where governments have sought to block adult content and prevent peer-to-peer file sharing, it remains relatively easy to access sites where sexual imagery can be freely viewed and posted , whilst there are thousands — perhaps hundreds of thousands — of sites where video content is available to download on a subscription of a pay-to-view basis.

The rise of the Internet and the putative pornification of society are hence intimately connected, with pornography producers being early innovators in the use of online and visual technologies to disseminate adult content. The public space of the Internet is characterised by relative anonymity, affordability, and accessibility, allowing those in peripheral and poorer regions — especially those outside major metropolitan cores - to become active consumers of adult content Jacobs This implies that pornography has undergone a shift towards decentralization and heterogeneity as a wider variety of producers and consumers participate in globalized sex markets.

Indeed, any notion of geographic disembedment is illusionary, as the Internet adult industry operates in a space of flows that offers new possibilities for pornographic distribution but remains anchored in a space of places. In this sense, it is possible that some of the arguments deployed in economic geography about the embedded nature of production and the importance of tacit knowledge are relevant to pornography production. To some extent this explains why the adult industries have tended to be innovators in the use of online and IT technologies: Inter-firm knowledge flows have been vital here, with adult entertainment trade fairs e.

A key role of such fairs is to encourage global copycatting: The first of these relates to the content that adult websites buy to host on their websites the most common practice for pay-to-view providers. Though the creation of content is now relatively easy in the sense that it merely requires relatively cheap camcorder and willing participants , the acknowledged centre of porn has, since the s, been San Fernando or Silicone Valley, as it is sometimes dubbed , which currently accounts for around two-thirds of listed adult entertainment production studios being home to around companies.

This remarkable agglomeration economy developed by virtue of the fact that San Fernando offered abundant low-rent industrial spaces and warehouses where Hollywood wannabee actors and directors utilized ex-studio equipment and expertise to create the first wave of adult videos as distinct from films - see Simpson Emphasizing the continued dominance of the US in studio-produced pornography Danta notes that an additional 12 percent of adult film studios worldwide are located in other parts of Los Angeles; 15 percent are found in other cities notably New York, Miami and Las Vegas ; and only 2 percent of studios are located in other countries mainly Russia, Czech Republic, and Hungary.

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